Urban Inequality

by Edward L. Glaeser, Matthew G. Resseger, Kristina Tobio – #14419 (PE)


What impact does inequality have on metropolitan areas? Crime rates are higher in places with more inequality, and people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is also a negative association between local inequality and the growth of both income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills. What determines the degree of inequality across metropolitan areas? Twenty years ago, metropolitan inequality was strongly associated with poverty, but today, inequality is more strongly linked to the presence of the wealthy. Inequality in skills can explain about one third of the variation in income inequality, and that skill inequality is itself explained by historical schooling patterns and immigration. There are also substantial differences in the returns to skill, related to local concentrations in different industries, and these too are strongly correlated with inequality.


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15 years ago

I gather it’s a US-based paper. While nothing in that abstract surprises me, I’d like see more about what the actual economic costs of local income inequality are: e.g., how much does the extra crime cost? And if there’s a negative association between inequality and income/population growth, to what degree does this act as an automatic mechanism to counter excess growth in inequality?
Are incomes adjusted for local variations in taxes and services that work to reduce effective disposable income differences?